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FLAVOUR PROFILES
Fruity:
Citrus - grapefruit, lemon; berry - blackberry, raspberry, strawberry, black currant (cassis); tree fruit - cherry, apricot, peach, apple; tropical fruit - pineapple, melon, banana; dried fruit - strawberry jam, raisins, prune, fig.
Vegetative:
fresh - stemmy, cut green grass, bell pepper, eucalyptus, mint; canned-cooked - green beans, asparagus, green olive, black olive, artichoke;
dried - haw-straw, tea, tobacco.
Nutty:
walnut, hazelnut, almond.
Caramelised:
honey, butterscotch, butter, soy sauce, chocolate, molasses
Woody:
vanilla, cedar, oak, smoky, burnt toast, charred, coffee.
Earthy:
dusty, mushroom, musty (mildew), mouldy cork.
Chemical:
petroleum - tar, plastic, kerosene, diesel; sulphur - rubbery, garlic, skunk, cabbage, burnt match, wet wool, wet dog; papery - wet cardboard; pungent - acetic acid (vinegar); other - soapy, fishy.
Pungent:
hot - alcohol; cool - menthol.
Microbiological:
yeast, sauerkraut, sweaty, horsy, "mousey."
Floral:
orange blossom, rose, violet, geranium.
Spicy:
cloves, black pepper, liquorice, anise.

WHITE GRAPES
Sauvignon Blanc:
Gooseberries, 'cat's pee', asparagus.
Sémillon:
Honey, orange, lime.
Chardonnay:
Butter, melon, apple, pineapple, vanilla (if oaked).
Chenin Blanc:
Wet wool, beeswax, honey, apple, almond.
Rhine Riesling:
Citrus fruits, petrol, honey.
Gewürztraminer:
Rose petals, lychees, spice.
Viognier:
Peaches, pear, nutmeg, apricot.

RED GRAPES
Gamay:
Banana, bubble-gum, red fruits.
Pinot Noir:
Raspberry, cherry, violets, 'farmyard' (with age).
Zinfandel:
Black cherry, mixed spices, tea, mint.
Syrah:
Tobacco, pepper, blackberry.
Grenache:
Smoky, pepper, raspberry.
Tempranillo:
Vanilla, strawberry, tobacco.
Sangiovese:
Herbs, black cherry, leathery, earthy.
Nebbiolo:
Leather, stewed prunes, chocolate, liquorice.
Merlot:
Black cherry, plums, pepper, coffee.
Cabernet Franc:
Tobacco, raspberry, grass.
Cabernet Sauvignon:
Blackcurrants, chocolate, mint, tobacco.
Pinotage:
Raspberry, plum, pine needles, dried banana.